⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Huck Finn Understatement Analysis

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Huck Finn Understatement Analysis

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Satire in Huckleberry Finn

Students may also struggle with distinguishing between reason and emotion. This chapter includes excerpts from emotionally grounded arguments that are effective because they exist on the shift- ing border between emotion and reason think of how Georgiana Kleege uses the fact of her blindness to make an emotional appeal page You can help your students see the relationships among reason, emotion, argument, and persuasion by drawing on the board a diagram that shows rational argument as a subset of persuasion. In- vite your students to help you develop another diagram that shows everything as an argument. Such a diagram leaves room for emotional appeals as a legitimate part of argument and inquiry, an idea that some students resist.

Before you show the diagram, though, you might have your students de- velop their own diagrams to illustrate the relationships. Have the class critique those student diagrams as tests: where, for example, do the civil rights arguments of Martin Luther King Jr. Under what conditions do these and other examples serve as legitimate argument? Exercises 1. To what specific feelings or emotions do the following slogans, sales pitches, and maxims appeal? First make sure that they can explain what argument the image is making. Many college students are not familiar with protests against corporate power, and the pur- pose of the image may confuse them. If the students are bothered by this flag, press them to dis- cuss what makes this image troubling for them: what values and emotions does this particular representation of the flag chal- lenge?

You can extend the consideration of this image by dis- cussing whether appropriating an image like the flag is ever appropriate for protest or for support. How could they adapt the imagery of the flag to express their opinions about the United States? Most students can readily appreciate the connections between rhetoric and advertising, so asking them to determine how adver- tising employs rhetorical strategies can be an especially productive exercise.

You might emphasize how different advertisers focus on different emotions. A magazine like Rolling Stone, aimed at a younger demographic than Time, is more likely to contain humor- ous advertisements. Ads in Time and Newsweek might appeal to the emotions that parents feel about their children since those magazines have an older audience. Ask students to identify the emotional appeals and the logical appeals and to ex- plain their combined effectiveness.

How does emotion work in these mo- ments? In particular, how do Jackson and Reeve use arguments from the heart to help bolster their claims of reason? You might also ask students to complete this kind of analysis as a homework assignment; separating the appeals to pathos from the other elements of argument will force them to sharpen their thinking about how rhetoric works. This chapter presents two primary difficulties for students. First, many students feel uncomfortable with the idea that ethos is context- specific. They do not like the idea that good and honorable people can seek to change their self-presentation for different audiences without lying or misrepresenting themselves.

Further, the idea that, say, Jessica Simpson has a more credible ethos than a senator or gov- ernor in the right context — for example, a cosmetics advertisement — bothers some students. The second and more important difficulty is that some first-year students find it a challenge to take on a voice they are not accustomed to and call it their own.

Many students simply do not have the writing experience to believe that they have more than one voice or that they could develop a variety of voices for different rhetorical contexts. Some students will want to argue that adopting different voices is a form of lying — by creating characters that do not exist or by taking on authority that is not theirs to claim. Explain to students that the written voices they use in class, in emails to family members, and in job applications, for example, al- ready differ but that they are not necessarily false representations.

This image from a presidential campaign may not be meaningful to students, but adapting the strategy to their own arguments would be a great exercise for small groups, allowing students to produce their own arguments and enhance their technical skills if they work on a Web site. Have your students present their work to the whole class, and be sure to press them to specify their audience s. Different audiences require differ- ent kinds of authority, and a project like this can help students grasp that essential principle.

Consider the ethos of each of the following public figures. Then describe one or two public arguments, campaigns, or products that might benefit from their endorsements as well as several that would not. The strategies we outline in this chapter claiming authority and establishing credibility work in almost any rhetorical situation, and we have included excerpts that demonstrate the importance of arguments from character. You can extend the exercises by ask- ing students to list the many voices they have and the situations in which they are appropriate.

Ask students to find things they have written for different audiences, or assign them a topic and a set of audiences. A writer who researches also has an ethos — one that is based in part on which sources the au- thor uses and in part on how the author uses the sources. As mentioned in the above notes, the context of the argument deter- mines what kind of ethos is necessary for the occasion. Many students might already have an opinion about Lance Armstrong. Does their opinion of Armstrong change any if they see him on the cover of Every Second Counts? What about Jackie Chan? Does he have a viable ethos for a milk advertisement?

As group work or a homework as- signment, have students consider how ethos figures into an argument in which no person is visible. How can a newspaper have an ethos? What ethos does the New York Times have? But using evidence responsibly is complicated. Students will need to become comfortable critiquing facts as well as opinions, questioning surveys and statistical evidence, and uncovering assump- tions that lie behind enthymemes.

The concept of the arguable proposition might help students see that making a distinction between fact and opinion can sometimes be difficult. Certain propositions are not arguable: the square root of 81 is 9; Spain borders Portugal; Charles Dickens wrote in English. We do not argue about these claims because we accept them as commonplaces: they are, for most purposes, facts. But other facts are arguable: Christopher Columbus discovered America, William Shakespeare wrote all the plays attributed to him, clear-cutting in the rain forest has little environmental impact.

At some point in the not too distant past, these last three facts were commonplaces, at least to certain audiences. But now they are arguable propositions: reasonable people could dispute the claims and offer other evi- dence in support of counterarguments. They will need to click through a gallery of posters that use many of the same tactics to find the one printed here. Ask your students to read the mission statement on the Web site to further understand the context within which this image was created.

Depending on the makeup of your classroom, this image might generate heated conversation and opinions from all sides of the political spectrum. It will help if you keep the focus on the visual and verbal strategies employed here. A good place to start might be to break your class up into small groups and ask them to dis- cuss how the text is subverted by the image. How does the image appeal to emotions? Have them report back to the class with their findings. Discuss whether the following statements are examples of hard evidence [inartistic] or rational appeals [artistic]. Not all cases are clear-cut. This chapter distinguishes between artistic and inartistic proofs: the first relies on authorial invention enthymemes, syllogisms, analogies, and so on , and the second on specific pieces of evi- dence.

You will need to help your students see the effectiveness of artistic appeals, too. We offer several excerpts that you could use to explore artistic ap- peals, but a quick look at any newspaper op-ed page will reveal many more examples. As an introduction to Toulmin logic and as evidence for the idea that artistic appeals can be effective, have your students find the claims and reasons embedded in newspa- per editorials. Student newspapers also offer, in our experience, examples of ineffective artistic appeals. Stu- dents are often especially interested in logical fallacies, and the assignment in which they rewrite the headline for the shampoo ad will help them think about why some people intentionally choose to use logical fallacies.

In what contexts is a fallacy more effective than a rigorously argued logical claim? In those cases, what role do facts and reason play? Ask your stu- dents to examine at least twelve of the sample arguments. Can they generalize about the kinds of situations that benefit most from logical appeals? The next few chapters emphasize how rhetoric can help them produce arguments. The rhetorical concepts that the book has introduced help students to understand how and why people make the arguments that they do. First-year writers, who bring a range of experiences and abilities to the classroom, may know some of these concepts under different names.

But once they can articulate these ideas, they can think, read, and write more consciously and critically. Encourage your students to explore their familiarity with these concepts by asking them to name examples of each of the categories of argument. Popular advertisements are a good tool for showing stu- dents the power of carefully crafted appeals; students have some- times studied advertisements in psychology classes, and they come to think of advertising as a series of tricks.

But rhetorical analysis can help them see advertising — and therefore many other forms of dis- course — as communication that they can understand. Describe a persuasive moment you can recall from a speech, an article, an editorial, an advertisement, or your personal experi- ence. Some students may feel energized by the idea that they can discover hidden agendas through the application of rhetor- ical concepts. And is the Chronicle really addressing the quality of its ethos, which is what Zombietime ultimately attacks? A careful discus- sion of the sample should help students make their own argu- ments about the images that they find.

Having students present their rhetorical analysis of the photo to the class will force them to articulate how they broke the text down into in- dividual elements. These exercises ask a great deal of students and could easily serve as paper assignments. Make sure that your students choose clearly argumenta- tive texts to analyze. You might consider taking any one of these exercises and modeling the response for your classes to help build their confidence before they begin their own rhetorical analyses.

When students write a rhetorical analysis, they fre- quently become so concerned with breaking the argument apart to isolate separate elements that they overlook the purpose of the argu- ment. A rhetorical analysis that recognizes the goals of an argument can identify why the creator of the argument makes certain choices, including choices to omit, for example, a reliance on logical claims. Tutorial 3 will help keep students focused on judging how well the ar- gument they are analyzing accomplishes its goals. But for reasons that we explain in the chapter, Toulmin logic can also be a powerful as an analytic and productive tool.

Our experience has been that when first-year students commit themselves to understanding and using the Toulmin framework, their writing im- proves noticeably. Students begin to make arguments that use evi- dence effectively, and they write papers that show greater sensitivity to audience. The system holds students accountable for every part of their argument, while forcing them to question the foundations and assumptions underlying their claims. But like any complicated system, Toulmin logic takes time to learn.

Do not expect your students to become comfortable with the con- cepts immediately. Instead, plan to introduce and review the various elements of Toulmin argument over a period of weeks. This chapter explains the system in a few pages, but the material is significantly more complex than that of the previous chapters. Take your time leading students through the idea of claims and reasons. These two key elements might take a week to explain completely, especially if you use real-world examples in which claims and reasons are not made explicit. Letters to the editor of any newspaper will illustrate the problems of making clear claims supported by coherent reasons.

Some letters will serve as examples of good, clear writing; others will make great counterexamples. Students usually struggle with the idea that there are two kinds of evidence — in support of reasons and of warrants — and that an argu- ment might be exemplary in its use of one while completely ignoring the other. The Toulmin system gives you a way of explaining to your students exactly what the evidentiary problems are in their argu- ments. Show them pages filled with long para- graphs that reach all the margins on the page, and their eyes will give them plenty of information before they start reading.

If you can access the Web in class, you might show students im- ages of newspaper front pages from the early twentieth century beside current front pages of USA Today. The importance of white space will be immediately clear to them. After comparing images from different time periods, have them make up their own announcements about a July 4th celebration. Following is a claim followed by five possible supporting reasons. State the warrant that would support each of the arguments in brief.

Which of the warrants would need to be defended? Which would a college audience likely accept without significant back- ing? Bush; Al Gore should have won the election. You can help students learn Toulmin logic by taking every op- portunity to use the terminology in class. The more students hear the words, the more comfortable they will be using them them- selves. Reason: Because I want everyone to see each other in the discussion. Warrant: Seeing other students in a discussion is good. Warrant: If I want a student to do some- thing in class, the student should do it.

Reason: Because I have not eaten since last night. Reason: Toulmin is too complicated. In short, use the system to show how powerful it can be. A final note: students work hard in other classes to learn com- plicated systems. Every academic field has terminology and a tax- onomy that take time to learn. You should make no apologies for teaching difficult material. Toulmin is hard to learn, but the effort is repaid many times over. Enthymeme: If students work hard to learn in any other classes, then they can expect to work hard to learn in a writing class, too. Before an argument can progress to the next stage, everyone must agree that something did happen. Consider a missing person case.

If no one knows where the person is and no body can be found, then authorities cannot arrest and try someone for murder, decide that an accident occurred, or rule the death a suicide. First, there must be agreement that something happened; only after the parties have agreed that something has hap- pened can they determine which term or definition best applies. An argument of fact is the basis of further claims. Your students may find arguments of fact to be especially interest- ing because they have long understood facts to be immutable. Prob- lems arise, however, when they begin to consider what kinds of facts can be reasonably argued and which cannot be reasonably argued.

For instance, in the exercises for this chapter, the statement that there has only been one Roman Catholic president of the first forty-three hardly seems arguable. A quick look in any encyclopedia would confirm this fact. But what if a historian found evidence that an earlier president was a Roman Catholic who had suppressed his religious affiliation because he feared the anti-Catholic prejudice that was common in the late nine- teenth century? In that case, even this seemingly straightforward, eas- ily verified claim becomes arguable.

A good argument with good evidence can make new facts. This example, which will fall far afield from the work that students will produce in their classes, nonetheless might help them understand that facts can be arguable. Research will play a crucial role in developing good factual arguments, and the brainstorming exercises included below should help them sort out which arguments would be particu- larly viable for a paper. To extend this exercise, you might ask students to find examples of arguments made visually that mislead the viewer. You might also spend some time look- ing at the different graphs that appear in USA Today.

For each topic in the following list, decide whether the claim is worth arguing to a college audience and explain why or why not: [Answers will vary; some suggestions are provided. How well can we measure hurricane strength before the Saffir- Simpson scale was created? How do we compare hurri- canes that are now hitting populated coastal areas to those that hit coastal areas with few residents? What do we consider high pay? What if we run out of fossil fuels or if obtaining them becomes too costly? These exercises would be especially helpful for helping students brainstorm paper topics of their own. You might use exercises 2 and 4 as group work in class. Immediate peer review of topic ideas will help some students see how reasonable their claims might be as well as how much work individual claims might require.

Exercise 3 gives students a number of examples of factual arguments to look at as models. This tutorial helps students to see how factual sources can have an agenda and to understand that the existence of an agenda or bias a particularly loaded word for many students does not necessarily hurt the credibility of a source. This tutorial will also help students understand that how a source or a student writer uses facts is part of an argument. This example works well in the classroom as an introduction to arguments of definition: an urn is discovered to be missing from a house and is found in the house of another man. At the level of fact, there is agreement: the defendant has the urn that be- longs to the plaintiff.

But there is considerable disagreement about definition: the plaintiff argues that the urn was stolen, whereas the de- fendant argues that it was merely borrowed. The case can go no fur- ther until the parties settle the question of definition. Toulmin logic will help you explain the contested — and the rhetorical — nature of definitional claims. Because definitional criteria are warrants, they must be chosen with audience in mind if the audi- ence members do not accept the criteria you choose, they will not ac- cept any other part of the argument.

You could return to the urn example to demonstrate the need for shared definitions of theft or borrowing. If, for example, you were to argue that borrowing without explicit permission constitutes theft, you would need to provide evi- dence for that criterion; your evidence must be tailored to a particular audience. Not everyone would accept that criterion: what about close friends who share their possessions without needing permission each time they borrow something?

Some students who struggle will be able to place an object within a given class a fiddle is certainly a violin; prostitution is an exploita- tion of women; paid workers are not volunteers but will balk at the need to explore or defend definitional criteria. Turn to Toulmin to show that they might have evidence in support of their reasons but not in support of the warrants — the definitional criteria themselves. You might extend the exer- cise by asking students to bring or create images that illustrate their preferred definitions of patriotism. The adaptation of the Uncle Sam recruiting poster might be an especially interesting image to ask your students to work with. How might they ap- propriate this image to put forward their own definition of pa- triotism?

You can have them describe how they might put together a poster of their own, but many of your students can manipulate images to create their own poster, so you might consider asking them to bring those images into class or posting them on the Web. Briefly discuss the criteria you might use to define the italicized terms in the following controversial claims of definition. Compare your definitions of the terms with those of your classmates. These exercises offer suggestions for helping students think of their own definitional claims by extending examples in the text. Another good exercise is for students to come up with far-fetched definitional claims: Oprah Winfrey is a cult leader; Disney is a virus; Tom Cruise is an alien.

When students write about the more creative claims and experiment with off-beat arguments, they have a greater opportunity to say something fresh. They often establish fundamental agreements, and if an author or a speaker can convince an audience to accept his or her definition, then the rest of the argument becomes much easier. For homework, ask students to identify the definition claim and the audi- ence for the claim.

What competing claims of definition can they iden- tify, and how might they take those competing claims into account if they were writing a paper on this argument? The parties disagree about the nature of the incident. One says the urn was stolen, and the other says it was merely borrowed. The defendant might argue that he stole the urn for a good reason: the urn contained water that he needed for his ill child.

The defendant now makes an argument of evaluation: the act of theft was, he claims, praiseworthy. You can use the story of the urn to show your students how argu- ments of evaluation grow out of arguments of definition. Nevertheless, most students will benefit from thinking of the two as separate, at least in the abstract. Many students will need help choosing the level of evaluative ab- straction for their arguments. The best argument probably lies be- tween those extremes, and most students will need help crafting a strong, arguable thesis.

Some students will be content to argue that something is good or bad; push them to complicate their ideas so that they write more interesting arguments. As with arguments of definition, evaluative arguments challenge students to defend their criteria. Toulmin logic will show that criteria are warrants and must be developed with audience in mind. If the au- dience does not accept the criteria, the evaluative judgment will not be accepted either. Ask stu- dents how they might rearrange this chart. What information could they highlight or suppress? How might a supporter of the American effort in Iraq present the same information?

You might ask students to research how political campaigns use charts and graphs to present information. How do they design visual information to make their arguments? Choose one item from the followings lists that you understand well enough to evaluate. Develop several criteria of evaluation you could defend to distinguish excellence from mediocrity in the area. Then choose another item from the list, this time one you do not know much about at all, and explain the research you might do to discover reasonable criteria of evaluation for it. You might use this exercise as an in-class activity, having students work in groups according to which topics they know best.

Many students will be sur- prised by how many criteria the group can come up with and how challenging it can be to establish criteria that many people can accept. Exercises 2 through 5 highlight the importance of developing evaluative criteria, which in our experience has been the step that most frustrates students. Because students generally feel comfort- able with evaluative arguments in some form such as for movies and sports , they can usually generate topics and claims with ease. They tend to have more difficulty tailoring criteria to specific au- diences. With supplementary exercises, therefore, we recom- mend that you focus on helping them think about the warrants for particular claims, a skill that they can then transfer to their papers.

Exercise 6 encourages a more analytic approach to evaluation using a genre that students probably have not studied much. This exercise also helps move students from some potentially simple evaluation arguments what makes a good pizza? With this ar- gument more than any other, students need to be reminded of the im- portance of supporting their arguments so that their target audiences will find their claims persuasive.

For homework, ask students to identify the evaluative claim and the audi- ence for the claim. What are the implied criteria for evaluation? The guide to writing causal argument in the chapter can help walk students through the process of writing a causal argu- ment. In some versions of the stases, causal arguments came before ar- guments of evaluation; in others, they came after. Show your class by using the examples from this book or from elsewhere that regardless of their place in the order of the stases, causal arguments build on and set up other arguments. Like definitions and evaluations, they rarely appear in pure form, though we provide some examples of such pure causal arguments in the text. The situations that open the chapter suggest such ideal causal arguments, though they also rely on defini- tional issues.

We have found that students typically try to tackle causal argu- ments that reach too far for a regular class paper. Remember, too, that because the logic of causal arguments can be complex, students will likely benefit from extra time and help as they make causal claims. For useful models, you might turn to sports writing. Students can easily see how reasonable, informed observers can differ on why a team or an individual won or lost a competition. The causes of the following events and phenomena are quite well known and frequently discussed. But do you understand them well enough yourself to spell out the causes to someone else?

Working in a group, see how well and in how much detail you can explain each of the following events or phenomena. Which explanations are relatively clear-cut, and which seem more open to debate? In the class discussion or in the papers they write, push students to identify a potential audience for this presentation. How much prior knowledge does someone need to have about malaria to understand the argument? What kind of action does some one need to be able to take to be a target audience for this argument? Then ask them to focus on the argument itself: Would these claims be more effective if they were presented more simply?

Do the bells and whistles of the presentation add to or detract from the main point? If they were to simplify this argument, what claims and evidence would they choose to em- phasize? Exercises 2 and 3 would work well as large-group activities. For exercise 2, go around the class several times to see how far afield from the initial cause you can go. Alternatively, go around the class only once for each cause, but choose several initial causes to take to extremes. Exercise 4, which offers students practice at dif- ferentiating between types of causes, would also make a good in- class exercise, though you might have each student work individually or in pairs and then compare causal arguments.

You could focus in particular on the dis- cussion of the book New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. As a discipline, history is especially concerned with causal arguments, and Charles Mann articulates a causal argument about the population decline in the Americas. Have students pay special atten- tion to how Mann talks about using sources to build his arguments. What sources can they consult to build their own causal arguments? You can ask students to define terms carefully, to explain their evaluative criteria, or to explore the causal connections more thoroughly.

This is a fun unit to teach because students put their rhetorical training to use and use language to change the world. Students often enjoy writing about practical problems on campus or in the community. If your students write policy proposals, be sure to teach them the dangers of biting off more than they can chew. We have asked students in our classes to do extensive audience analysis as part of the writing process. In the early stages of the writing process, ask students to write about their audience and con- sider the approaches that will be most rhetorically effective.

Remind your students that if a proposal is to be accepted, it needs to be finely tuned to the demands of its audience. Toulmin logic could help some students understand their audience by drawing attention to warrants. No other stu- dent-written argument seems to lend itself to a variety of student presentations as well as the proposal argument. This exercise asks students to think particularly about a local audi- ence, either their school or community. Many of your students are likely to have highly developed technical skills, so you might consider requiring them to create Web sites for their proposal arguments. But you might also ask them to think about what kinds of proposal arguments might benefit from simpler, less technical presentations. This exercise might be even more interesting if you ask your stu- dents to think of some possible defenses of off-the-wall sugges- tions.

But perhaps the most important aspect of this exercise lies in pushing students to move beyond relatively simple solutions. We have no objections to more ed- ucation, but encourage your students to make more specific pro- posals. The exercises focus on two key issues for proposal arguments: developing claims that represent responses to real problems and tailoring proposals to a specific audience.

Extend the exercises by asking students to examine a variety of proposals — from editori- als in the student newspaper to large-scale governmental policy proposals — in terms of those same issues. How have editorial writers targeted their audience in their pro- posals? Is the claim primar- ily a policy or a practice proposal? What special strategies do these proposals use to appeal to a particular audience? Does the proposal call for a feasible action? You might discuss several of these proposals in class to help students formulate support for their own claims. This chapter might best be approached as part of another unit so you can show the relationship between figures and definition, for ex- ample.

Metaphor is a definitional argument, after all. By combining this chapter with others, you can illustrate the ways figures argue and are not merely dressing on top of already established arguments. You can also push students to think carefully about what tropes they can include in their own arguments. Use this chapter to help them be- come more conscious about how they write. Challenge your students to find figures or tropes that we have not listed in this chapter. They could do research into the ancient rhetori- cal terms, or they could develop their own. Give students a piece of writing that is rich with figurative language, and ask them to identify each of the figures.

Are there any sentences that seem to contain no schemes or tropes? Remind them that figures represent changes in the ordinary syntax or signification; how might these remaining sentences be read as different from the ordinary? Exercises 1, 2, 4. These exercises ask students to become more conscious of style both as readers and as writers. Students who are alert to nuances of details in clothing can help the rest of the class un- derstand the importance of details and presentation in writing. Style, in writing or in cloth- ing, helps create meaning. In the following advertising slogans, identify the types of figura- tive language used: metaphor, simile, analogy, hyperbole, under- statement, rhetorical question, antonomasia, irony, parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, anaphora, or reversed structure.

Given that Jackson speaks deliberately and is frequently interrupted by ap- plause, students will probably have time to identify some of the tropes and schemes that he employs. If the speech moves too quickly for them to follow or if you want to extend the exercise, ask students to find the full text online and analyze it for figurative language. You might also ask them to rewrite sections of the speech by omitting or changing the figures and to compare their creations to the original text. Be sure to allow time to discuss how these tropes enhance the spoken presentation, making the speech accessible as well as memo- rable. Some humor — like that in the animated television show South Park, for example — can be obviously argumentative, and many stu- dents will have little trouble identifying arguments from that show.

Another animated TV program, Family Guy, is an example that most of your students will be familiar with, but its arguments might not be clear-cut to them. Once they see how these sources use humor, they should find it easier to see the ar- guments in some kinds of humor that they have been thinking of as argument-free. The concepts presented in this chapter — satire, par- ody, and detail — should help them improve their analyses. For each of the following items, list particular details that might contribute to a humorous look at the subject. You might, therefore, encourage your students to manipulate the images to add some humor, which will test their application of the principles in this chapter.

Alternatively, ask them to pro- vide captions that comment humorously on the image. In this case, you might have students bring in several images, display them in the classroom, and compete to write the wittiest caption. If you want your class to explore humor without spending days listening to friends or searching the Internet, you could ask them to bring political cartoons to class for discussion. Students could use Toulmin logic to analyze the many claims that cartoons make; a single cartoon could make many claims, of course.

Ask your class to pay special attention to audience: Who would find the cartoons funny? Who would not? The CD allows students to read the excerpt and then click on six discussions of the goals of the essay. You might consider asking students who are writing a humorous piece to analyze some of their own text in this way; if they make their goals ex- plicit, then they can make better choices about how to incorporate humor in their writing. But your students may need a framework for understanding such argu- ments so that they can review them critically in what they read and use them honestly in what they write.

This chapter offers that framework and takes a highly rhetorical approach to visual arguments. That is, the chapter does more than make recommendations about choosing fonts or effectively position- ing items on a page though it includes such advice as well ; it also asks students to ponder the rhetorical impact of visual texts and im- ages on readers. The final sections of the chapter offer advice on reading and writ- ing visual texts, as well as focus on rhetorical concepts. For instance, the elements of successful visual presentations are arranged accord- ing to three of the four appeals or lines of argument discussed ear- lier in the book so that writers are asked to consider visual arguments based on character, logic, and emotions.

You might ask students to offer more examples of how these appeals translate when operating in highly visual texts such as advertisements or magazine covers. In- deed, magazine advertising is a rich source of visual arguments be- cause almost all ads make the same claim: the reader should buy our product. Once your class is comfortable analyzing advertisements, you could move on to other visual arguments, such as textbook illustra- tions, statistical charts and graphs, product logos, and photojournal- ism — all of which are visually represented in this chapter. The discussion of these stamps should be a productive classroom exercise. How do argu- ments about America change from decade to decade?

Or have them look at international stamps: how do the arguments made by stamps in other countries differ from those of American stamps? Exercises 1—4. These exercises encourage students to write about visual images, a challenging task. Once students are comfortable thinking critically about images in class, they will be more able to go off on their own to do critical analyses. You could bring to class examples of good writing about images: short pieces of art criticism, incisive movie reviews, columns by popular cultural critics. Alternatively, you might have the students write an analysis of one of the images from the CD as homework and then present their arguments to the rest of the class. Help your students understand that audience awareness, style, and appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos are important means of persua- sion in any argument.

Web sites present rich opportunities for rhetorical analysis: they usually contain textual and visual arguments; their organization can differ radically from print texts; and they face a potentially worldwide audience. But when students make their own arguments in electronic environments, the tools of rhetoric will guide their decisions. This chapter also offers a rhetorical approach to spoken argu- ments. Writing courses are increasingly being called on to address speaking abilities, and persuasive, skillful oral presentation needs to be learned and practiced as surely as written presentation does.

Ask students to read carefully, perhaps even somewhat dramatically. Exercises For exercise 1, make sure that students take no more than four paragraphs of a written essay to work with. You might suggest that they enlarge the type and increase the line spacing when they rewrite the text for oral argument. These changes will allow the student to highlight certain words and insert reminders to pause or slow down, ask for questions, or offer extratextual comments.

You might give students the op- tion or even the requirement that they present one of their ar- guments for your class in a format other than a traditional essay. In particular, proposal arguments, which often come last in a writing class, lend themselves to a wide variety of formats. Ask- ing students to consider alternative means of presentation al- most always forces them to think more fully about the audience to whom they might address their arguments, a step that often results in higher-quality work. Have stu- dents bring their notes on these other arguments to class and work in small groups to discover what similarities or differences in strategies they identified. Were the strategies and their success determined by audience, personal preference, or something else?

How would they deliver these arguments in differ- ent ways? Would they use different kinds of diction and figurative language? When you show your students that they have a wide range of sources and forms available to them, their arguments will probably improve. As with some of the other chapters in Part 4, this chapter might be best taught in conjunction with a larger unit: combine a discussion of evi- dence with an assignment to write an evaluative argument, for in- stance. Once you explain to your class that evidence can take many forms, you can move on to a discussion of the inventional role evidence can take: finding one piece of evidence can lead students not just to other pieces of evidence but also to new ways of making their arguments.

Searching for evidence in libraries, interviews, or observations is not simply a one-way activity that goes from one source to the next. In- stead, it can help students understand what claims they want to make, how they can approach the argument, and how they should tailor their arguments to an audience. First-year writers have not usually chosen a major, but they might have some interest in a particular field or discipline. You could ask your students to interview faculty in their chosen field to find out what counts as evidence in that discipline. Students could then present their findings to the class. This is a two-part lesson: students have to find evidence about evidence. Exercises 1—3. These exercises focus on the inventional role of evidence gath- ering, not just the technical questions of how to find evidence.

Many of your students will not remember the incident surrounding these papers, and you might ask them to think about how their own political predilections influence their thoughts about the evidence. Are fans of George W. Bush less likely to demand visual proof that he shirked his National Guard duties? Do Bush critics expect those who doubt the veracity of these letters to present evi- dence for their opinion?

This exercise offers an excellent op- portunity for discussion of how our opinions and beliefs shape how we use and interpret evidence. You could develop other limit-setting exer- cises for other forms of evidence. Ask the librari- ans if they offer a guided tour or tutorial for students. Technical re- search skills are valuable, and first-year students rarely learn them except in their writing classes. Is the testimony by the police officers more reliable? In short, use this tutorial to help press students to think critically and skepti- cally about evidence — and to help them figure out how to build an argument from pieces of evidence that might be insufficient on their own or seem otherwise disconnected.

You could ask your students to do research into the topic of fallacies. If you combine this chapter with the one on evidence, you could also make this a disciplines-based activity because fallacies differ from field to field. Arguments that one audience might accept could be rejected by another audi- ence that considers the reasoning fallacious. Following is a list of political slogans or phrases that may be ex- amples of logical fallacies. Discuss each item to determine what you may know about the slogan; then decide which, if any, fallacy might be used to describe it.

Your students might really enjoy exercise 2 if you encourage them to write extreme examples of the fallacies. Exercises 3 and 4 ask students to find fallacies in other texts. These exercises might prove to be difficult, but that difficulty will help students understand that many so- called fallacies are audience-specific. Exercise 5, which asks stu- dents to see how other writers read fallacies, might also reinforce the slipperiness of calling an argument fallacious.

You might ask the students then to try to make the same argument without depend- ing on the fallacy: Is that even possible with all of these arguments? Is it ever OK to offer a consciously fallacious argument? But plagiarism is only a small part of the intellectual property debate, and its parame- ters are far from well defined. You can help your students learn to use sources responsibly if you show them the range of activities that could reasonably constitute plagiarism, from simple copying of text without quotation or attribution to including images on a Web site that the stu- dent did not create. Students need to learn that intellectual property can be as jealously guarded as material property, if not more so: ma- terial goods can usually be replaced, but intellectual work is not easy to return.

The first-year writing class is usually the place where students learn to respect intellectual property rights and where they struggle with the boundaries of appropriate attribution. As the teacher, you can decide how strict to be with violations of intellectual property. Our experience has been that for the most part, students do not in- tend to cheat or to copy without attribution. In most cases, they have simply misunderstood the rules of attribution or have not thought carefully enough about their use of sources.

If you use a process model in your course, you could encourage these students to write another draft, this time with appropriate use of sources. Not all inci- dents of plagiarism are simply well-intentioned mistakes, but we argue for a generous conception of teaching in the first-year course. For- tunately, this is an entertaining exercise that asks students to produce their own parody. The exercises for this chapter focus mainly on the differences among the various forms of intellectual-property protection. You could combine these exercises with a discussion of the protec- tions available to people in different academic fields. For ex- ample, how do scientists in college biology departments protect their work?

What about historians? Exercise 4 should be particularly useful for illustrating that intellectual prop- erty is as important an issue outside the classrom as it is inside it. Have stu- dents practice incorporating sources when you talk about intellectual property. As we mention above, many cases of student plagiarism come from a misunderstanding of how to cite sources properly, so having extra practice citing sources can be helpful for students. Assessing sources can also be a challenge for students. Because the Internet makes finding material so easy, some students will be sat- isfied with the thousands of hits they get on any search. You will have to teach your students to be very critical of Internet sources: for ex- ample, a personal homepage on legalizing marijuana is significantly less credible than refereed research on hemp agriculture, but your students might not see the difference.

The chapter includes a list of questions students can ask to determine the quality of any source, electronic or not. Not Just Words Students are frequently skeptical of media sources, and this ex- ercise might help them think carefully about the many layers in- volved in a media presentation. Press them to articulate what makes a source reliable: What level of accuracy should we be able to expect from journalists? What kinds of mistakes are for- givable? What kind of correction can excuse an error? The exercises focus largely on the problems of authority and credibility in assessing sources. The chapter describes the differences among quotations, para- phrases, and summaries, but the exercises do not address these differences.

Students will probably benefit from practicing these techniques, though the more context you can give them, the bet- ter. Carefully integrate the techniques into the larger concerns of the course. You might have students begin the practice with the Web sites: students seem to have special trouble with evaluating Web sites, even though they use the Web as their re- search tool of choice. The details are not hard to master, but they are complicated and reward careful attention. Our experience has been that first-year students will make up their own citation systems — with some mix of dates, names, and titles, rarely consistent — unless they are asked to follow MLA or APA guidelines carefully.

Not Just Words This exercise calls attention to the appearance of citations and how Web sites have chosen a form of documentation that helps to emphasize readability, as the links do not distract much from the text. Part of the goal of teaching citation, perhaps, is teaching students that a documentation style is not just a ran- dom collection of rules but a system designed to make intellec- tual inquiry open and honest. This exercise asks students to identify the ways certain citation systems make arguments in themselves.

Would book sales ever be an appropriate measure to cite in a bibliography? This exercise allows students to practice citing works e. This exercise should be fairly quick and simple for students, but make sure that they take the time to get their citations correct. Stu- dents must pay close attention to details to make sure they cite correctly. For this chapter, you might ask students to practice citing sources, once again emphasizing the Web sites section. Because Web sites do not have a standard format yet, students need extra help figuring out how to find the information they need to cite in addition to the correct format for their citation.

Though these kinds of exercises take some time, students usually need and benefit from the extra practice. The readings in this chapter examine representations of the human body. In doing so, they raise complex questions about the extent to which the media are descriptive or normative. If they are descriptive, they reflect society. If they are normative, they evaluate and judge so- ciety — either openly or indirectly, by setting standards against which real people and events come to be judged.

Should they? If so, to what extent are these portrayals and judg- ments harmful? To what extent and in which cases? Byrnes It Begins p. Is the baby in this cartoon male or female? Why do you think so? Answers will vary, but the baby is likely to be considered female because women are traditionally considered to be more interested in their looks than men are. Why is this cartoon humorous? What knowledge about American culture does it assume? Classroom Exercise: focus on the argument You have undoubtedly heard that physical appearance is increas- ingly important in the United States and elsewhere. Do you agree with this observation?

This exercise is intended to make students aware of the extent to which their beliefs are shaped by the experiences of others and also to enhance their ability to assess different types of evidence. She argues that popular culture teaches girls and women to hate and harm themselves. She concludes by pulling back and adding her own commentary and recontextualizing the dis- cussion in terms of the Columbine school killings. What cultural knowledge does Goodman assume her Boston Globe audience to have? She expects them to have familiarity with popular TV shows, knowledge of the high incidence of eating disorders among young women, and awareness of incidents of killings in schools by young male students.

How does she use allusions to American TV programs to build her argument? Answers will vary. One strong possibility is that Goodman invokes shared knowledge to establish credibility with her audience and develop ethos. They provide specific evidence of the material viewed by Fijians. What sort of causal argu- ment does she set up? For a discussion of causal arguments, see Chapter How effective do you find it? How persuasive is this link? How similar are the two types of destructive behavior that Goodman cites — the destruction of oth- ers committed by certain boys and the self-destruction committed by certain girls?

How is the role of the media similar in the two types of destruction? How is it different? How does Becker link exposure to Western media to the changing notions young Fijian women have of their own bodies? The author interviewed young women in a rural town of Fiji three years after the introduction of television to the community. Why, specifically, does Becker claim these women now want to be thin? How are these changes linked to other social changes occur- ring in Fiji, to adolescence, and to gender, especially in small-scale societies?

They identify with television characters and celebrity lifestyles, and they equate too much weight with laziness and thinness with success. Fiji is also facing economic and social changes as it looks out onto a globalizing world. Young women are especially susceptible to these outside media forces in a climate of rapid social change when they are searching for role models. Women in general must con- sider self-presentation for social status in an environment where merit is ascribed, not achieved.

As Becker notes, she relies on qualitative data — specifically inter- view data — to support her arguments. Why are such data espe- cially appropriate, given her goals of understanding the changing social meanings of body image for young Fijian women as part of other rapid social changes taking place? For a discussion of first- hand evidence, see Chapter Interview data are firsthand evidence that may not be avail- able through observations or even questionnaires. The per- spective of a person involved in a specific situation is invaluable, especially in a changing social atmosphere where other types of evidence may be difficult to collect.

Throughout the Discussion and Conclusion sections, Becker re- peatedly qualifies her arguments to discourage readers from ex- tending them further than she believes her data warrant. Find two cases where she does so, and explain in what specific ways she re- minds readers of the limits of her claims. For a discussion on qual- ifying claims and arguments, see Chapter 6. Why, for example, is an abstract placed at the beginning of an article?

Why are keywords a valuable part of this abstract? The delineated sections of the article give structure to the paper and create focal points for different information about the study. The abstract tells us what to expect from the paper as a whole, so it comes first. The discussion ana- lyzes the data that have been presented. The conclusion draws the various points together with some implications for further research or action. The keywords present the main themes of the paper so that the reader can judge the relevance of the article to the information that they seek. Writing assignment Classroom Exercise: focus on the argument Becker reports that beauty standards are changing in Fiji due to the in- flux of Western ideals, specifically television images of slender women.

Consider your response to this research. Would you have imagined that television could have such an effect in a culture with a long history of appreciating full-figure women? Should one or both issues be addressed? Should young Fijian women be encouraged to return to their traditional beauty ideals? How are reviews arguments? A review creates an argument about the relative merits of a particular book, artwork, or business. A piece of this sort lets readers know what to expect from whatever is being re- viewed and places the work in a social context.

How appropriate are they? Do the visual elements contribute to the review? Why or why not? She notes that the author breaks away from the common theme of losing weight and complaining about weight and instead explores how she became fat and how it has made her who she is. How would quotations, especially in a book review, both tell and show something about the book being reviewed?

Answers will vary, but the quotations about dieting, un- happy family life, and food excess suggest that much of the book will discuss the interaction of these three themes. Choose two quotations, and explain how Stern uses them as a part of her evaluative judgment. How does Stern cre- ate her own ethos as a writer and reviewer? How would you char- acterize her ethos?

Writing assignment Classroom Exercise: focus on the world Both Stern and Moore talk frankly about being fat. How comfortable are you with this tone and point of view? Do you think that Americans focus too much on body appearance? Should we be concerned about weight to a certain degree, or does personal acceptance mean not try- ing to change at all? Egg: Help! He's just gonna eat the toast and put a cigarette out on me! Godzilla: Oh my God! Stewie: I'll just be a degree different kind of insufferable! Peter: bloodied and beaten I didn't even tell him yet. He just does not like to be touched. Woman: Kevin James, why did you have to come back to television?

Kevin: I ate Adam Sandler. Peter: Yes, I'll have one terrible beer that's filled up way too high so half of it will spill out, and one too-long hot dog in a too-short bun, and do you have mustard relish? Cook: Yeah, it's there between the entrance and the exits to the bathrooms. Peter: Great. And I'll also have one bag of unsalted peanuts. You know, something I'd never eat anywhere else in the world. Cook: Here you go. Peter: Great, I can't wait to have diarrhea in the bathroom stall with no door while 20 guys wait for me to finish. Chris: I could take a whack at hand-distressing furniture. Quagmire: We don't say "whack" here. Quagmire: All of you are sex offenders, and statistically, you will all be here again, because this has never worked in the history of doing this.

Now, today we have a new member giggity , Chris G. Quagmire: Alright, first of all, whoever has a windowless van painted like an ice cream truck, your lights are on. Over half the group leaves. Peter: Hey Chris, wait till you see the funny thing I had them put on your cake. Chris: Happy 6th Birthday, Timmy? Peter: Uh-oh, they must've mixed 'em up. Meanwhile at Timmy's birthday party Timmy: Nice crank, you dirty little bastard? Enter Peter with the other cake Peter: Sorry, I'll take that. Here's your cake, I ate a great deal of it.

First Doctor: So the baby died? Second Doctor: Yeah, the baby died. But look, first place! Chris: Well, I'm off to the wind chimes store! Peter: There can not be a whole store just for that! Meg: She worked in that library for 54 years. Peter: Well at least she got to see a little wang before she died. Quagmire: Are you on vacation, Joe? Joe: Yeah. Stewie: I threw that over him. He was just doing it out in the open before. Cleveland: Black guys put hot sauce on everything, on account of most of us been pepper sprayed by the time we're 2. Can't taste nothing unless you got that burn on there.

Peter: That last one was more caliente than hot, but still, holy crap! Cleveland: I think this is how Anna Nicole Smith died. Quagmire: Don't make light of that. Cleveland: Who keeps voting for these mayors?! Peter: Rhode Island's a mess from top to bottom. Peter: I have a inch penis! Joe: Peter, why'd you want me to get me into this prison? Peter: Because, Joe, everybody knows that all prisoners make bootleg wine in their toilet. We are gonna get so wasted. Oh, look, right here. This one's full of chardonnay. Peter: narrating But it was chardonnay. The best chardonnay I've ever had in my life.

The man who made it, Curtis "Murder Dog" Williams, went on to become one of America's most celebrated vintners. Joe: narrating Hey, Joe here. Peter's lying, he drank pee-pee. Mayor West: That was a croquet ball. Peter: mouth full of blood and shattered teeth Ah, then could you point me to the closest nighttime dentist? Handler: He's a little shy, but here he is, Sham-Peter!

Couch: I just had sex with a girl on her period! Other Couch: Dude, that's not a brag! Stewie: Do they all say "a roodily toot toot? Peter: I'm sorry Brian, I didn't want you to find out this way I'm one of these people now. Mayor Adam West's Mom: Adam, are you done with that mayor homework yet? Adam: It's called a bill, mom. Peter: sitting in a lawn chair next to a cooler full of beer, looking at his phone You're under the canoe in Quagmire's backyard! Brian: offscreen Damnit! Peter: And the winner is Good night. Brian: Aw, sweet, dilk! Cleveland: It's grounds for dismissal if anyone ever got fired here, but they don't.

Drone: By foot?! Anyway, I gotta deliver these fat pants to your fat son! We have to special order Junior's pants from a company that makes grill covers. Stewie: Hey, it's Stewie. All I know about cars is what my mom does. Peter: to his ex, who actually is blackmailing him And I don't know what to call the thing you're doing to me! Peter: having been tricked into the Peter Catcher's cage truck I'm going to get so molested Stewie: Are there any grey-haired lesbian art teachers here to help us choose fiber cereal?

It won't take long, I know your huge dogs are tied up outside! Announcer: shirt. Agent: Billy, you're through, you haven't been in anything in ten years! Billy: Yes I have, I was in those electronic cigarette commercials! Agent: That was Steven Dorff! Billy: Awww Clerk: How did you like the collar? William: 'Tis not for me. Cowboy Kid: I'm gonna shoot you with my six-gun! Native American Indian: I'm gonna shoot you with my bow and arrow! Indian: I'm just gonna stand here wearing a shirt that looks like a jacket.

Brian: at the same time Now let's get out of here. Stewie: at the same time Now let's go see what their wieners look like. Priest: Do you take this woman to lecture you on transfats for as long as you live? Chris: I do. Priest: And do you take this man to be a watered-down Bono until death do you part? Gwyneth: I do. Priest: I now pronounce you pretentious and terrible. You may now name your daughter after a fruit. Season Fifteen. Lois condemning the aforementioned cutaway as being inappropriate for children, despite once taking Stewie to see Magic Mike XXL. Peter using Stewie as a lumbar pillow. Peter: This works better in the car.

Stewie: to a man Where are you drinkin' that Chardonnay? Quagmire: It's the furthest thing from a trick, and it should be pretty hard, I'm a worse person than you think. Man: Have fun out there. I'm going to go feed everything in my van to each other. Stewie: spanks a muscular man's ass See, Brian, that's a rock bottom. Now get out of here, we're gonna drink some Chardonnay. Carter Pewterschmidt: What's wrong with this worm? Mort : Well, that's what I get for horsing around. Peter: throws a baseball, tries to hit it, but misses Your joke wasn't that good enough. Mayor Adam West: I didn't know we had brown apple in the forecast.

Welp, looks like we need it. I would have gone if I knew they were going to do a painting! Bruce: Three strikes and he's out, just like my cousin Freddie and his drugs. Peter: Wow, look at him go! I've never seen Chris run out on a baseball field without chasing a duck or being chased by a duck. Peter: Is-is that a lot? Cleveland: It's a lot, then nothing, and then a record whose proceeds go directly to creditors. Peter: OW!! Why does everything bad happen to me?!

Answer me, guy in box and guy on cross! Peter: Hey, I have an idea for this thing called "Twitter". It's a service that lets crazy people slam women and minorities at 3 AM! Janitor: Meg, that was the last guy so just clean up after you're done. Bookie: You want to pick a team? Peter: No no, just take them. Stewie: Okay, if you had a friend who worked at Mega Hardware, how would you get him fired? Luis: You ask him for papers?

Stewie: Okay, good. Uh, that, unfortunately, won't work in this instance. But I like your effort, Luis. Uh, any other ideas? Carlos: You could kill a guy. Stewie: You know what, Carlos, you stay quiet for a while. I really only need two of you. You'll still be paid. Migrant Worker 3: You ask for papers? Stewie: Okay, is there any idea out there besides killing a guy or getting someone deported? Carlos: We do good job, we live with you?

Stewie: Well, you just offered to kill a guy, so you're not exactly number one on my roommate list. Now, let's go. I paid good money for you, I need answers! I want your best, and I won't stand for even one more stupid idea! Migrant Worker 3: You shake up boss's soda and give to him. When he open it, it explode! Beat Stewie: This is why I pushed you. Peter: Ah! She's got us both! Help us, pimps and hos! Help us, HBO camera crew!

Quagmire: I know. Eventually, I might want to try it again. Bin Laden: Hey cool, Family Guy! Hey, up here! Stewie: Mmm, strawberry banana nutella with a raspberry drip! Now I just need a guy's butt to eat this off and we're good to go! Peter: You know I'm only tough on you 'cause I hate you, right? Brian: They overestimated the number of dogs that buy movie tickets. James: It says don't take it with alcohol, but you should take it with alcohol. Woods: Yeah, duh! I'll also need some for the girl I'm babysitting. Son: You'll always be a rockstar to me, dad. Peter: You ruined my life! I'm going to bed Peter: notices some graffiti near the ceiling Looks like somebody named "Brooks" was here.

Cleveland: This time, try to get like, eight of them. I want to make bruschetta. Peter: Once the floor is full of sawdust, we can eat peanuts in here! Peter: Hope you like The Offspring! Peter: slurred How many tooths is not enough tooths? Upon realizing a trip to Africa would be smelly and gross, our crew decided to stay in the office. Chris: Hey Grandpa, how did you sleep last night?

Peter: What else did I have to do today? Ah, yes, overdose in my apartment. Brian: And here comes Marmaduke to lick up the vomit! Flapper: So, what's your name? Stewie Nick : Madam, you forget yourself! Stewie: I hate to burst your bubble, but that light is from a gay gym called The Pumphouse. I-I only know that because of a coupon I found in my rental. Stewie: Well, it's not that palace of domestic abuse you live in. Peter: I invited you here and sat you next to my wife to tell you to stay away from my wife! We should drunkenly drive into Manhattan and get a hotel room and have the same conversation we're having here-I'm starting to think this isn't a very good book. Jim: So, wait. We didn't die?

Huck: I dunno, it's all just jokes. Joe: Hi, we're fake-selling the Brooklyn Bridge! Quagmire: Don't call it fake-selling! Joe: We're real -selling the Brooklyn Bridge! Quagmire: Stop qualifying the selling! George: Have we pulled an object off a plant and placed it in a burlap sack? Yeah, I think we grasp the nuances of this job. I got a good feeling about you guys.

Stewie: Good night, kids. Good luck with those book reports. Host: I somehow manage to look ripped and deathly ill at the same time. Brian: Stewie, is this about mouth stuff while driving? Stewie: It's about all types of driving safety, yes. Why is that guy laughing at me?! Where is he?! Nobody told me that! Peter: Not too bad, but shortly after, I was almost eaten alive by an escalator! Carter: What's room tone?

Chris: Dang it, now we gotta start again. Powell: Ma'm, I'd like to take your son into the woods! Mother: What? That sounds suspicious. Powell: What if I told you we'd be wearing shorts and handkerchiefs and I'll give him patches for doing what I say? Kid: I don't understand Lynch: Thats the point, let the fear wash over you! Also, did you leave a plate of black coffee out for me? Kid: No? Lynch: In the future, please leave a plate of black coffee out for me. Also in the past. Peter: Are you the gross lady who lives in the converted horse trailer?

Peter: It doesn't say "whites only", but Peter: Thanks, sweatshop Korean animator, you've earned your nickel this week. Host: Over on Game of Thrones we have a malnourished albino plowing a girl in a hot tub as he names dragons. Lois: Peter, I don't know what this is but we're 4 months behind on our mortgage. Peter: On any other day, that would be exciting. Now give me my mail and go. Peter: I dunno, I thought he could eat it by the fistful or rub it on his balls. Cleveland: Why do you keep saying what everything is sponsored by? Rob: My manager said if I don't, I won't go to heaven.

Peter: God, they're still going?! Lois: Peter, this is exactly what I told you would happen. Not so much fun anymore, is it? Crowd at Gronk's: Noise! Loud noise, noise, and a civil war cannon! Lois: Peter, that was Home Improvement. Peter: It's exhausting that you never go with anything I say. Cleveland: What do they eat? Peter: Gin and whatever's in the bowl at the airport bar. Peter: I dunno, it's just random garbage on my computer. Owner: Great, you must be a DJ!

I own a club for cocaine people and Armenians, would you like to play for me? Brian: Steal your son's wallet while he's in the shower. Stewie: Seems like we should be moving these pieces backwards. Stewie: Get out of here, Flea! You're not welcome here! And put on a shirt, you're 50! Flea: Actually Lois: Did that really happen? Brian: The Wizard of Id is addressing his subjects.

Carter: Is he up in the balcony? Brian: Yes. Carter: Then you know it's a good one. Cashier: calls his manager That lady who ate all the pies is back. Stewie: I'm pretty sure you're manipulating me, but let's go blind that old bastard. Tom: Yeah, it's a surprise that a restaurant where you eat with your hands next to piles of horse manure while untrained theater students fight with real swords is drowning in lawsuits.

Peter: Oh right, he's that guy too Hartman: What's the difference between these two pictures? Oh yeah, the pie's had a wedge removed. House Owner: I think you're just modern-day Arnold Schwarzenegger. Joe: after he can't wiggle his toes That's what I've been trying to tell you before the show. Drunk: Hey, is there a skeleton in a wig who can drive me home? Maria Shriver: Yeah, I'm here. The Terminator: Look at this mess! Where is the housekeeper?! Host: There was a miscommunication when we registered our domain name. Droopy: with a gigantic grin Contrary to my appearance, I'm still not happy.

Peter: I'm glad for the business but you drinking that on your knees is just putting a hat on a hat. Skeet Shooter: Pull! Chris: I got in the wrong line! Peter: Now if you'll excuse me, I have to go lick a fleshy pale woman's foot for Real Sex Peter: I wasn't gonna have 'em signed, I was just gonna tell 'em their stats Stewie: Oh yes, that's what Ernest Hemingway said. Peter: Hey Brian, I'm that boring storyline about the fat guy watching that girl.

Bully: Haha, Meg is so stupid, she couldn't handle the glory of God's love! Adam West: Haha, I'm telling you that dog is very easily persuaded. Now let's see what's going on over at the old high-school! Peter: Loads of people fought for that thing, including yours truly! Kid: You were in the service? I may have misunderstood what "yours truly" means. Peter: Uh oh, here come the real cops. Band: We're all just blocking the street, we're all just blocking the street! Peter: I'm planning on dying tonight. Ride Operator: Would you also like to ride the Skittles rainbow? Peter: Is it also acid? Ride Operator: Sir, I'm an adult who works at a waterpark. If I give you something, it's acid.

Adam West: Hey, you idiot, you gotta wait until the guy says go! Chris: Yay, we're jar people! Science, help!! Commercial Host: Jersey Mike's! Bring your girlfriend with the fat ass in here! Stewie: They can't solve this crime, they're just babies! They don't even know there's a crime, they just know their parents aren't there! Commercial Host: Fruit Bouquets, the rotting gift with flies on it! Peter: Madam Secretary , on toning at Explanation Man: And that's how we get the expression "Gay as a bag of popcorn.

Kid Rock: I just took a leak into a beer can without spilling. Peter: You're ready. You don't need me anymore. Kid Rock: Will I ever see you again? Peter: Wherever a father weighs less than his daughter, I'll be there. Wherever a person has a banner for a football team, I'll be there. Wherever there's a fight in a Waffle House, I'll be there! Now go, people need a concert to go to after the waterpark! Brian: Sorry, I thought you meant like, you're open for business? Lois: NO!! I'm confiding in a friend!

Stewie: Haha! You're the safe friend! Season Sixteen. Peter has everyone fart and vomit before the Comedy sequence. Peter pointing out how offensive the minority characters on a lot of Emmy-winning shows are after Sofia Vergara makes a joke about her cousin living in the Amazon and making shoes made from leaves. She's obviously furious but when she threatens Peter if he tries touching Vergara, he just slams the door in her face. In a parody of Transparent , Peter decides to undergo gender-reassignment surgery. Quagmire, who doesn't seem to have really grasped what they're doing, wonders if he's driving his friends and family to this since his dad had already undergone the same operation. And instead of the Drunken Clam, everyone is hanging out at Cheers!

Stewie claims Brian is mad because he has to be "the lady one". The Live Studio Ostrich in a grad cap and nerd glasses. Peter : Just look how smart our audience is! Ostrich : Hahaa! Meg : sitting in a bathtub You've given me the courage to eat this cake in a weird place. Cleveland : You Five-O? Mayor Adam West : No, I'm 87, but how flattering! I didn't want to go to her soccer game either. Oops, that was meant to be a text for my wife. Peter : We don't even watch that much Hulu! Stewie: Ugh. You know later, we're going to have to take one of those forced happiness family photos that come in the restaurant's tacky frame. Chris: Why are you so fucking negative all the time?

Stewie: I, uh, what, I don't, uh Lois : Peter walks out of the bathroom bruised and beaten Let me guess, you got your ass kicked by Meryl Streep? Lois : Thank you! Stewie : Lois just sent a text; "hamburgers or meatballs for dinner? Announcer : For a swimming event And it looks like Canada won- oh wait, they're going back the other way. Peter : How do I look? Lois : Like a gas station energy drink. George : George Clooney, second-worst Batman. Peter : Peter Griffin, second-best Homer.

Remember Huck Finn Understatement Analysis on this computer. Huck Finn Understatement Analysis Studio Ostrich Informative Essay On Vlad The Impaler Huck Finn Understatement Analysis ha! This chapter might best be approached as part of another unit so Huck Finn Understatement Analysis can show the relationship between figures Huck Finn Understatement Analysis definition, for ex- ample. George : George Clooney, second-worst Batman. Who might be the audience for such a seminar?