❤❤❤ Abortion And Utilitarianism
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PHILOSOPHY - Ethics: Utilitarianism, Part 1 [HD]
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Original ed. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press; The drowning child and the expanding circle. New Internationalist. Smarter programming of the female condom: increasing its Impact on HIV prevention in the developing world Boston; United Nations Population Fund. HIV prevention gains momentum: successes in female condom programming. Gollub EL. The female condom: tool for women's empowerment. Am J Public Health. Assembly UG. Universal declaration of human rights [III] a. Paris UN General Assembly. International covenant on economic, Social and cultural rights. Download references.
Neither author received any institutional or other funding for this project. Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study. Philip R. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. EAM conceived and drafted the paper. JGK contributed to the concept, edited the paper and provided a number of illustrations and examples. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Elliot Marseille.
EAM is principal of the firm, Health Strategies International, that specializes in the economic evaluation of both global and domestic public health programs. Trained in health policy analysis, Dr. Kahn is an expert in cost-effectiveness analysis, evidence-based medicine, and policy modeling in health care. His work focuses on the use of cost-effectiveness analysis to inform decision-making in public health and medicine. He is a widely published expert in the economic assessment of HIV prevention and treatment programs and on a wide range of other global health issues.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Marseille, E. Utilitarianism and the ethical foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis in resource allocation for global health. Philos Ethics Humanit Med 14, 5 Download citation. Received : 02 July Accepted : 15 March Published : 03 April Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Background Economic efficiency is a leading criterion for resource allocation decisions for global or public health [ 1 , 2 ]. In the context of global health, this implies: 1. Limitations to criticisms of cost-effectiveness analysis and problems with other ethical principles Various ethical principles are cited to justify policy positions or resource allocation decisions in global health [ 5 ]. Utilitarianism: Maximize total health benefit given the relevant budget. Urgent need: More urgent needs give rise to stronger moral claims 4.
Prioritarianism: Provide resources to the least advantaged. Rule of rescue: Identified lives in imminent danger take precedence. Equal worth: All lives have equal worth; therefore, all are entitled to the same resources. Likelihood of convergence between ethical principles. Full size image. Table 1 Comparison of the effect of spending , on the female condom versus spending , on the male condom in three HIV risk groups in high-prevalence countries Full size table. Conclusions The long-term social and political project of re-directing resources away from activities that undermine human flourishing and toward those that are conducive, is one of the most urgent of our era.
Notes 1. References 1. Article Google Scholar 3. Article Google Scholar 4. Article Google Scholar 6. Google Scholar 7. Book Google Scholar 9. Nevertheless, criminal law often finds it convenient to distinguish discontinuing an intervention, which is permissible, from bringing about a result, which may not be, if, for instance, the result is death of a patient. The question is whether the difference, if there is one, between acting and omitting to act can be described or defined in a way that bears general moral weight. A runaway train or trolley comes to a branch in the track. One person is working on one branch, and five on the other, and the trolley will kill anyone working on the branch it enters.
Clearly, to most thinkers, the driver should steer for the less populated branch. But now suppose that, left to itself, it will go to the branch with five people on it, and you as a bystander can interfere, altering the points so that it veers towards the other. When data is scarce, Kantian theory offers more precision than utilitarianism because one can generally determine if somebody is being used as a mere means, even if the impact on human happiness is ambiguous. Contrastingly, utilitarianism compares all available acts and sees which has the best effects.
Although utilitarianism has a larger scope than Kantianism, it is a more timely process. What world would you rather live in? A world based off of trust or a world full of broken promises? A world full of calculations or a world with quick decision making? The decision is yours. Bennett, Christopher. London: Routledge,Positions Aesthetics Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Evaluation IfHMa. Ethical Perspectives. Abortion And Utilitarianism references. Views Read Abortion And Utilitarianism View history. In fact, he Abortion And Utilitarianism a chimp has more Abortion And Utilitarianism to exist masefield sea fever Abortion And Utilitarianism person, and Abortion And Utilitarianism killing babies can be justified.