⌚ John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay

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John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay

Martin figures in John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay Carol Karlsen's account of the John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay outbreak as an example of a John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay who was easily Theme Of Concealment In The Scarlet Letter as a threat to the orderly transmission of property down the John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay line because of Martin's John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay in an ongoing court dispute over her father's will. Cotton Mather who attended the executions on this day and encouraged the hanging to go forward, even though George Burroughs recited the Lord's Prayer perfectly and won the online shopping addiction sympathy. Proctor maintained his innocence John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay his death, all the while questioning the methods of the court and its acceptance of spectral evidence. Other John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay They classified people with four German grandparents as John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay or kindred blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. Fear, despair and Argumentative Essay On Immigration reign supreme. She John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay in Massachusetts in from Buckinghamshire, England, married the blacksmith George Martin in Salisbury, in and had eight children. However, if someone refused John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay and then fell on bad circumstances, witchcraft suspicions and accusations were almost John Proctor Tragic Hero Essay certainty. That the townsfolk Wizard Of Oz Archetypes take the word of a few of teenagers seems hard to believe, but darker forces were at work here.

Tragic Hero : A look at John Proctor from The Crucible

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Ray, Born in England about , Giles Corey was one of the six men to be executed during the Salem witch trials of He emigrated from England to Salem and remained there until when he relocated to Salem Farms, just south of Salem Village. There he owned an extensive plot of land, which resulted in the appearance of his being a prosperous farmer. His personality, reputation and relationships with others however tainted that picture. Although he had become a full member of the Village church and had close ties with the Porter faction in the Village, his reputation as one who lacked consideration for others in the community and as one who lead a "scandalous life," quite possibly had a significant impact on his being accused as a witch.

Because of Corey's previous encounters with the law, there was further suspicion of his guilt during the witch trials. In , Corey pummeled and killed a farm worker named Jacob Goodale. He was found guilty of the murder and ordered to pay a substantial fine. By the time of the trials, Giles Corey was already 80, and was married to Martha, his third wife. On March 19, , Martha was arrested for witchcraft. Giles, for reasons unknown to others, decided to testify against his wife, but eventually tried to recant his deposition, which lead to greater suspicion of his involvement in witchcraft because of the stigma surrounding perjury.

One month later, on April 19, , Giles Corey was accused of witchcraft and there was a warrant out for his arrest. There were two primary accusations, one from Abigail Hobbs who during her own confession to witchcraft named Giles and Martha Corey as fellow witches, and one from Exekiell Chevers and John Putnam, Jr. After his arrest, Giles Corey remained in jail with his wife until his trial on September 16, He went to the trial and pleaded "not guilty" but simultaneously refused to "put himself on the court" because of his contempt for the court.

Corey was not willing to submit himself to a trial by jury that, he believed, had already determined his guilt. Because the court had accepted the testimony of the same accusers in a trial on September 9, and in all previous trials, Giles understood that there was no chance of being found not guilty and that a conviction would be inevitable. In every previous trial when an accused individual had plead not guilty, not a single person was cleared so Giles preferred to undergo "what Death they would put him to" rather than be found guilty of witchcraft and thus put to death. According to English law, Giles was ruled as "standing mute" because he would not be tried by "God and my country. Because Giles stood mute, he was given the dreaded sentence of peine forte et dure even though this procedure had been determined to be illegal by the government of Massachusetts.

It was illegal for two reasons: there was no law permitting pressing, and it violated the Puritan provisions of the Body of Liberties regarding the end of barbarous punishment. In the entire history of the United States, Giles Corey is the only person ever to be pressed to death by order of a court. There is a strong local tradition Giles Corey refused trial in order to avoid a conviction that would result in the forfeiture of his property to the government. Under English and Massachusetts law, however, conviction could not result in the forfeiture of an estate.

However, the George Corwin, the Sheriff of Essex Country illegally seized the property of some of those arrested for witchcraft. Before his arrest, Corey himself was clearly concerned about his extensive estate, and he wrote a will that deeded his land to his sons-in-law William Cleeves and John Moulton. The laws clearly stated that landowners retained the right to give their land to their heirs rather than forfeit it because of a conviction, and apparently Corey knew it. Thus it does not seem likely that Corey refused to go on trial to save his property.

On or before September 18, , Giles Corey was slowly pressed to death in the field next to the jail. In the literature about Giles Corey's tortuous death, there is reference to his famous last words, "more weight. It is even told that the Sheriff took his cane and pressed Giles' tongue back into his mouth just before he died at the end of the two days of being slowly crushed. On September 18, , Giles Corey was ex-communicated from the Village church so that he would not die as a member of the church. On September 21, , Martha, his wife, was hanged on Gallows Hill. It has been speculated that the publicity surrounding the pressing of Giles may have in fact helped to build public opposition to the witchcraft trials. In Arthur Miller's, The Crucible, Giles Corey is a prominent character in part because of his unique role in the witch trials.

Giles' colorful past, his willingness to be tortured before compromising his own values, and his role in his wife's conviction are the factors which make him such a vibrant character. Although Millers' presentation of Giles Corey in The Crucibleis not purely historical, his place in the witch trials will never be forgotten. Giles Corey did in fact testify against his wife in front of the court, and he seems to have stood mute as an act of dramatic defiance. Henry W. Longfellow's Giles Corey of Salem Farms is another piece of literature that portrays Giles Corey in a strong and powerful manner.

In his play, Corey's character is defined by his last conversation with his friend Capt. Richard Gardner. In the play, Giles Corey says: "I will not plead. If I deny, I am condemned already, in courts where ghosts appear as witnesses, and swear men's lives away. If I confess, then I confess to a lie, to buy a life which is not a life, but only death in life. I will not bear false witness against any, Not even against myself, whom I count least I come! Here is my body; ye may torture it, but the immortal soul ye cannot crush! This passage shows why the character of Giles Corey attracts attention not only when examining court documents from but also the present day literature. Giles Corey will be remembered unambiguously in literature and history because of his act of supreme defiance to the Salem witch trials.

David C. The accusation of Martha Corey marked a turning point in the Salem witch trials crisis of in Massachusetts. Corey was a newly accepted member of the village church and broke the established mold of only social pariahs being accused of practicing witchcraft. Major contributing factors to the case being brought against her were an illegitimate son born to Corey in the s, and her outspoken criticisms of the trials and the judges involved in the convictions. Although Martha espoused her innocence throughout her whole ordeal, she was put to death on September 22, In , the small town of Salem, Massachusetts was wracked by terror and confusion. By March, accusations and convictions of witches and witchcraft had reached a high point, and it seemed like no one was safe from the madness.

These three women seemed to fit a kind of stereotypical pattern. They were perceived by many as social outcasts, misfits, and were not members of the church. On March 11, , this pattern took a drastically different turn, however. Under the pressure of Reverend Samuel Parris, the two girls accused Goodwife Martha Corey, a new but universally accepted good member of the Salem church; to some, she was even known as the "gospel woman. Martha Corey's active church participation and religious faith were genuine, but her history was not as pure. Over twenty years earlier, Corey had given birth to an illegitimate son whom she named Benoni.

Benoni was thought to be mulatto and was living proof of Corey's indiscriminate past. Because the boy lived with Corey and her husband, Giles, town members were completely aware of her situation, and it is likely that this was one factor that played into the afflicted girls' accusation. After being accused, Martha made a concerted effort to dispel the rumors that she was a witch, and cited her religious fervor as proof that she could never support nor believe in the devil. In her book, In the Devil's Snare, however, author Mary Beth Norton makes the point that Martha's "acceptance into the church, given her personal background and the exclusivity of church membership in Salem Village, must have set tongues wagging.

On at least one other occasion in seventeenth-century New England, the admission to church membership of a woman with a checkered sexual past fomented an uproar among her neighbors. The same could well have happened in the case of Martha Corey, causing speculation about the validity of her reputed adherence to Christianity Norton, page A second contributing factor, perhaps even more important than her illegitimate son, was Corey's vehement, and public, denunciations of the witch trials and the judges involved in hearings.

From the beginning, Corey was skeptical about even the existence of witches. In an encounter with a member of the Putnam family, Martha stated that she "did not think there were any witches" in New England and believed that she could" open the eyes of the church to the truth about non-existence of the devil himself. Corey was also critical of the afflicted girls themselves. During her trial, she asked that the judges not believe the actions of the girls, and made similar claims throughout the Salem crisis as a whole. This fact combined with her questionable past made her an easy target for the afflicted girls. By accusing her, the Putnams demonstrated that they would willingly attack anyone who openly questioned their motives and authority.

By , the Putnam family had fallen on social and economic hardship, and its members were looking for people to blame for their essential fall from grace. Two easy targets of their anger were Mary Veren Putnam and Joseph Putnam, the stepmother and half-brother of Thomas Putnam and his siblings. The ideal revenge would be to accuse both of witchcraft; for various reasons, however, including the perceived social power of Mary and Joseph and their familial ties, the Putnams never brought cases against them.

Instead, they focused their attention on less-threatening targets, like Martha Corey. Indeed, Boyer and Nissenbaum believe that the Putnams projected their anger and dissatisfaction with Mary onto Martha: "The accusation of…Corey was a key point along the psychological progression which the Thomas Putnam family, and the entire witchcraft episode, followed in …In turning on [Corey] they betrayed the fact that witchcraft accusations against the powerless, the outcast, or the already victimized were not sufficiently cathartic for them.

They were driven to last out at persons of real respectability — persons, in short, who reminded them of the individuals actually responsible so they believed for their own reduced fortunes and prospects…Corey was the ideal transition figure: she combined respectability with a touch of deviance. If the Putnams could bring her down, they would be free, not only politically, but psychologically as well, to play out their compulsions on a still larger scale Boyer and Nissenbaum, page On March 21, , Corey was forced to testify on her innocence in court.

When asked by Judge Hathorne why she "hurt" "these persons," Corey responded, "I never had to do with Witchcraft since I was born. I am a Gospell Woman. It was truly her word against the testimonies of others, telling similar stories to Edward Putnam, who spoke on behalf of Ann Putnam, Jr. On September 22 of the same year, Martha Corey was hung to death in Salem. She was one of nineteen men and women killed during the witchcraft crisis. The accusation and conviction of Martha Corey marked a turning point in the Salem witch crisis. Corey was a well-liked, accepted, and covenanted member of the church who was socially and economically stable.

Her past sexual indiscretions, combined with her opposition to the trials and the personal vendettas of the Putnam family, however, all made her a fairly easy target for the afflicted girls. Martha Corey opened the door for anyone to be accused of witchcraft. She removed all of the social boundaries and led the way for over one hundred more men and women to be accused of cavorting with the devil in Massachusetts. Boyer, Paul and Nissembaum, Stephan.

Salem Possessed. Harvard University Press. United States of America. Norton, Mary Beth. New York, NY. The story of Mary Easty, the year-old sister of Rebecca Nurse and Sarah Cloyce from Topsfield usually draws the portrait, now legendary, of a courageous martyr fighting for her innocence. Her case gives insight into the workings of the trials, and her eloquent and legally astute petitions have been said to help bring them to an end.

Considering the assumption that witchcraft was hereditary, Mary Towne Easty was certain to be accused of witchcraft after her sister, Rebecca Towne Nurse, was condemned for her unwavering appeal of innocence. Mary Easty was not a member of Salem Town or Village, but a resident of Topsfield, a settlement just north of the Village. Animosity had festered between members of Salem Village and Topsfield since when the General Court of Massachusetts granted Salem permission to expand northward in the direction of the Ipswich River, but then only four years later the same court authorized inhabitants of another Village, Ipswich, to found a settlement there.

As land became scarcer, quarrels regarding boundaries between the settlement to become known as Topsfield and Salem went on for a century. The Putnams of Salem Village embodied this battle in their quarrels with the Nurse family, Mary Easty's brother-in-law. According to Boyer and Nissenbaum in Salem Possessed, considering the bitterness between these families, it can be seen as no coincidence that the three Towne sisters, Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Cloyce and Mary Easty, were all daughters and wives of Topsfield men eventually to be persecuted by Putnam women in on behalf of Putnam men. More interesting than the accusations against Easty is her experience during the trials. She was accused on April 21, examined on the 22nd, and imprisoned after denying her guilt.

During her examination, Magistrate John Hathorne aggressively questioned Easty, or more accurately, tried to lead her to a confession by the following line of questioning:. I will say it, if it was my last time, I am clear of this sin. In a surprising moment, Hathorne, clearly affected by the convincing manner with which Easty spoke, turned to the accusers and asked, "Are you certain this is the woman? Hathorne was now convinced and imprisoned Easty.

The girls, however, seemed not to be fully convinced of their own accusations. Perhaps due to pressure from community around Easty, all of the accusers, except Mercy Lewis, began to back off their claims and Easty was released from jail on May The details of what happened next provide undeniable clues about the power of the accusers and the impossibility of conducting a fair juridical process. After Easty's release, Mercy Lewis fell into violent fits and appeared to be approaching death. Mercy Lewis later explained that Easty was tormenting her, and "said [Easty] would kill [Lewis] before midnight because she did not cleare hir so as the Rest did.

Along the path to the Mercy's house, Ann and Abigail explained that they saw Easty's specter tormenting Mercy, strongly suggesting a collaboration effort had already taken place before Mercy began her torments. Frances Hill in A Delusion of Satan calls this episode a propaganda scheme to show doubting Villagers the dire consequences of freeing witches from jail. Mercy and four others cried out against Easty on May Mercy's fits did not cease until Easty was back in prison in irons demonstrating the effective power of the accusers. While Easty remained in jail awaiting her September 9 trial, she and her sister, Sarah Cloyce, composed a petition to the magistrates in which they asked, in essence, for a fair trial.

They complained that they were "neither able to plead our owne cause, nor is councell allowed. Easty hoped her good reputation in Topsfield and the words of her minister might aid her case in Salem, a town of strangers. Lastly, the sisters asked that the testimony of accusers and other "witches" be dismissed considering it was predominantly spectral evidence that lacked legality. Salem Witchcraft Papers, I: The sisters hoped that the judges would be forced to weigh solid character testimony against ambiguous spectral evidence. The petition did not change the outcome of Easty's trial, for she was condemned to hang on September 17th. But together with her second petition, Easty had forced the court to consider its flaws.

Easty's second petition was written not as a last attempt to save her own life but as a plea that "no more innocent blood may be shed. If they were able to give similar credible accounts of their spectral experiences then any doubt would be removed as to the guilt or innocence of the person on trial. This proposal brings to mind Thomas Brattle's observation in his famous Letter of October 8, that the accusers, when not claiming to be attacked by specters, were otherwise in good health.

Easty was obviously not the only skeptic of the accusers' spectral torments. Secondly, Easty proposed that all confessing witches be brought to trial as well as those confessing innocence. Rosenthal writes in A Salem Story that in an atmosphere of rising doubt, "for the court to ignore Easty's challenge would be to acknowledge to the critics that the proceedings were fatally flawed - that the hunt was not really for witches after all but for validating the court. Easty was hanged on September 22, Her demeanor at Gallows Hill is documented by Calef: "when she took her last farewell of her husband, children and friends, was, as is reported by them present, as serious, religious, distinct, and affectionate as could well be exprest, drawing tears from the eyes of almost all present.

Sarah Good was born to a prosperous innkeeper in However, her father's estate became entangled in litigation leaving Sarah Good in poverty. After the death of her first husband, she married William Good. The Goods lived a life of begging and poverty in Salem Village. Sarah was regarded as an unsavory person and has come to be regarded through literature as the stereotypical witch, a disreputable old hag. Good was among the first three women accused of witchcraft in and was the first to testify. She never confessed guilt, but, like Tituba, she did accuse Sarah Osburne, an act that was credited with validating the witchcraft trials and accusations. Good was hanged as a witch on Tuesday July 19, , but not until after the imprisonment of her six year old child Dorcas, also accused of witchcraft, and the tragic death of her infant in prison.

Sarah Good was born in to a well off innkeeper named John Solart. However, her father's estate was tied up in litigation that left Good virtually nothing. Her first marriage was to a poor indentured servant named Daniel Poole who died in debt in Her second marriage to William Good was doomed from the outset because the couple had to pay for the debts of first husband Poole.

The Goods were homeless, renting rooms in other people's houses, and they had two young children. William worked as a laborer around Salem Village in exchange for food and lodging, but it became increasingly difficult for the family to find a place to stay as Sarah's reputation for and being socially unpleasant spread throughout the town. The family was regarded as a nuisance to the town, and by they were virtually beggars. Good's position as a disreputable and marginal member of society made her a perfect candidate for witchcraft accusations. The three were accused initially of afflicting Betty Parris and Abigail Williams, and later many other accusers came forward to testify about injurious actions and spectral evidence against Good.

Good was the first to testify in the Salem Witchcraft trials, and Bernard Rosenthal in Salem Story asserts that Good was specifically chosen to start the trials off because most people were in support of ridding Salem Village of her presence. Even her six-year-old daughter Dorcas was frightened into testifying against her, and although her husband did not call her a witch, he said that he, too, had reason to believe she was close to becoming one, thus, perhaps, protecting himself from accusation.

One of Good's trial records quotes William Good as saying, "it was her bad carriage to [me] and indeed say I with tears that she is enemy to all good. When Hathorne in the pre-trial hearings asked, "Why do you hurt these children? I scorn it. Although Good never confessed, she did accuse Sarah Osborne of afflicting the girls after witnessing the accusers fall down in fits in the courtroom. Historians generally agree that this accusation by Good was one of the first and strongest legitimizations of the witchcraft trials.

Only one person came forth to defend Good. When one of the girls accused Good of stabbing her with a knife and produced a broken knife tip to prove it, a man came forward showing that it was his knife from which the tip had been broken in the presence of the accusing girl. Far from invalidating the girl's testimony against Good, Judge Stoughton simply asked the girl to continue with her accusations with a reminder to stick to the facts. Good was condemned to hang but was pardoned until the birth of her child. Her daughter Dorcas was accused of witchery and was imprisoned for over seven months. Although the child of six years was eventually released on bond, she was psychologically damaged for the rest of her life.

Good's infant died in prison with her before Good was hanged. Her execution occurred on Tuesday July 19, According to local tradition, when Good stood at the gallows prepared to die she was asked once more by Rev. Nicholas Noyes, assistant minister in the Salem church, to confess and thus save her immortal soul. Far from confessing, Good is said to have screamed, "You're a liar! I'm no more a witch than you are a wizard! If you take my life away, God will give you blood to drink!

The way in which Good has been portrayed in literature is worth mentioning because it sheds light upon how the Salem Witch Trials have been popularly imagined and how the accused witches were and are viewed today. Good is always depicted as an old hag with white hair and wrinkled skin. She is often said to be sixty or seventy years of age by the same writers who clearly state that she was pregnant and had a six-year-old daughter.

Even accounts from Salem Villagers and magistrates at the time refer to her as an old nuisance, hag, and bed-ridden. How did such a misconception arise? Perhaps her hard life did have such a physical effect on Good that she did appear extremely aged. On the other hand, witches are described in literature then and now as being old wicked women. If Good was to represent the typical witch worthy of execution, then it is not surprising that all of the stereotypes would be accordingly attached. Good was a marginal woman and no doubt a nuisance to her neighbors. However, the Salem trials were conducted unfairly, with a presumption of guilt, and little evidence. Marginality is not worthy of hanging, and Good was never proved to be nor did she confess to be a witch.

Boyer, Paul and Stephen Nissenbaum. Karlson, Carol. New York: W. Norton, Rosenthal, Bernard. Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, George Jacobs, Sr. He was accused, among many others, by his granddaughter, Margaret Jacobs who was also accused and imprisoned. Depending on scholarly opinion, he has been seen as the victim of personal grudges, the casualty of the socio-political climate of Salem, or the target of cultural system's effects on young, socially subordinate women. This well-known, dramatic painting by New York artist Thompkins. Matteson, was painted in Ripley and Charles A. Detail Source Oil painting.

The painting depicts the trial of George Jacobs, Sr. The scene is an imaginary one, as no records of the actual trial exist, and it its not known who was present at Jacobs' trial on August 5th. The inspiration for the painting comes from two moving documents written by 17year-old Margaret Jacobs: "Margaret Jacobs to her Father" and "Recantation of Margaret Jacobs. In addition to the officials of the court, Matteson portrays several members of the George Jacobs family who became caught up in the witchcraft accusations in Salem Village.

Kneeling in the foreground is the white haired, 72 year-old George Jacobs, Sr. At the center of the picture, pointing her finger directly at Jacobs, is his granddaughter Margaret Jacobs. Urged to confess to witchcraft to save her life, she accused her grandfather among others who had already been accused. The distraught figure lunging towards Margaret is her mother Rebecca Jacobs, who was said to have been mentally deranged at the time.

She, too, was accused of witchcraft. Standing next to George Jacobs, Sr. In the foreground, Matteson places a young man and a girl suffering from "fits," caused by George Jacobs senior's invisible "specter. The black robed magistrates are shown at the bench, with the chief magistrate, William Stoughton, towing over the commotion caused by Margaret's accusation of her grandfather. One of the magistrates, perhaps John Hathorne, who often took the lead role in interrogating the accused in court, holds a written document, in front of the young Margaret Jacobs.

This document may be intended to represent Margaret's written confession in which she accuses her grandfather. Judge Hathorne gestures towards the clerk of the court, Stephen Sewall, who is shown writing down Margaret's testimony at the clerk's table, with the other court records lying in front of him. In the background against the windows Matteson shows a group of people who may represent the grand jury. The artist also depicts the large crowd of onlookers that typically attended the trials in Salem. Gravestone of George Jacobs, Sr. The remains of a man believed to be George Jacobs, Sr. Not much is known about when he came to Massachusetts Bay Colony, or about his first wife. He had three children from his first marriage, all born in Salem.

George Jr. He bought land in Salem around and married his second wife, Mary, about He had lived in Salem for a little over thirty years when he was accused of witchcraft. He was examined twice, on the day of his arrest and on the following day. His trial took place in early August, and he remained in prison from the time of his arrest until his execution on August His primary accuser was Sarah Churchill, who was a servant in his home.

She came from a wealthy family of English gentry in Maine but was most likely orphaned in Indian Wars. She, like Margaret, had been accused of witchcraft and, in her confession, accused others. George Jacobs granddaughter Margaret herself confessed to witchcraft and accused her grandfather among others who had already been accused in order, she wrote, "to save my life and to have my liberty. The women accused his Jacobs' specter of beating them with his walking stick and other physical abuses. Not only did the women testify that Jacobs afflicted them, they also testified to witnessing the afflictions of the others. During his testimony, John DeRich, a sixteen-year old boy, was the only person to claim that Jacobs afflicted him.

The Putnam men testified that they witnessed the afflictions that Mary Walcott and the other women suffered on May 11 at the hands of Jacobs' specter. The Puritans believed that witches and wizards had proof of their covenants with the Devil on their bodies. Doctor George Herrick was sent to examine Jacobs' body for the witch's "teat," and found one on his right shoulder. This slight protuberance on his skin combined with the spectral evidence made the case strong enough for indictment. He was incredulous from the moment the first accuser, Abigail Williams, cried out against him. He laughed in court, always a risky response and said: "Because I am falsely accused.

The judges, however, believed that the Devil cannot take a person's form "without [his] consent. This was the first time men were executed as witches in Salem. Meanwhile, Jacobs' granddaughter Margaret Jacobs was free from danger after confessing and accusing her grandfather but remained in jail. Her father, George Jacobs, Jr. When he did so, he left behind his wife, Rebecca, in jail facing witchcraft charges. She became severely emotionally disturbed and was most likely ruled mentally incompetent and escaped conviction. George Sr. Jacobs body was retrieved from Gallows Hill by his family and buried on his land.

In the 's his body had to be moved quickly, due to the sale of the Jacobs family property,. His bones were kept in storage in the Danvers Archive until when he was finally put to rest in the Rebecca Nurse Cemetery. Bernard Rosenthal views him as the victim of fabrication. For example, Ann Putnam and Abigail Williams knowingly put pins in their hands and accused his specter of putting them there to add to evidence against him Salem Story. He was also a victim of the life-saving strategy that the accused learned during the early course of the trials: confess and your life will be spared.

Two of his primary accusers were among the accused who confessed to save themselves.. Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum interpret the trials in socio-economic and political terms. They argue that many members of the more rural and agricultural Salem Village e. Salem Village had been trying to assert its independence from the Town by establishing its own church, and inhabitants of the Village with ties to the Town were seen as threats to the cause of Village independence. As such, the majority of accusers was from the Village and the majority of the accused who lived on the western side of the Village nearer to the Town. The phenomenon of the accused becoming accusers was due, they argue, to the swarm of accusations made in the heat of politics and economics.

Eventually the confusion had to fall back on itself. Carol Karlsen offers a more gender-oriented analysis. The "possessed accusers" were usually subordinate members of society such as servants. Many of them, like Sarah Churchill, were orphans. Their prospects for improving their social standings were virtually nonexistent since they had no families and no dowries to support them.

Totally dependent upon the will of others, their discontent and anxiety would have been quite marked. Puritan society, however, did not tolerate socially aggressive and assertive women. Their fears were then converted, psychologically, into the belief that they were either witches or were possessed. After all, Carol Karlsen argues, a society that teaches the existence of possession will invariably contain persons who think they are possessed and are believed to be so by others. As for the specific reason that Sarah Churchill accused George Jacobs, he may have been seen as a tormentor or harsh master since most of the accusations contained charges of physical abuse.

All of these explanations fall short, however. None of them explains why Jacobs own granddaughter would accuse him of all people or why such a large number of accusations flew at Jacobs, except for the fact that he publicly denounced the circle of "afflicted" girls, thus opening them to charges of fraud and compliance with the Devil. If modern students and scholars find it hard to explain why so many people would spend their time accusing a 70 year-old man, it is quite easy to see why George Jacobs, Sr.

The sixty-seven year old widow Susannah Martin of Amesbury was hanged as a witch on July 19, on the basis of the testimony of the accusing circle of girls of Salem Village and other neighbors. Although she maintained her innocence to the end, a previous history of witchcraft accusations and the momentum of Salem's accusations carried her to the gallows. Martin figures in historian Carol Karlsen's account of the Salem outbreak as an example of a woman who was easily targeted as a threat to the orderly transmission of property down the paternal line because of Martin's role in an ongoing court dispute over her father's will.

Source Mabel Martin:. Artist, Mary A. By David C. Maintaining her innocence up until the moment of her execution, Susannah North Martin was hanged with four other women on July 19, during the outbreak of witchcraft accusations in Salem. At the time of her execution Martin was 67 and a widow. She arrived in Massachusetts in from Buckinghamshire, England, married the blacksmith George Martin in Salisbury, in and had eight children. During the course of her examination and trial 15 of Martin's neighbors accused her of afflicting them through her specter, by pinching them or causing their farm animals to die.

The Reverend Cotton Mather believed her to be "one of the most impudent, scurrilous, wicked Creatures in the World" Brave and outspoken, Martin refused to allow her accusers to shake her convictions. Standing in the courtroom, confronted by girls seemingly writhing from "afflictions" they blamed on her, Martin maintained that she only "desire[d] to lead my self according to the word of God. Martin was no stranger to witchcraft accusations, having been accused two decades earlier.

Her husband, deceased by the time of the Salem outbreak, had countered the charges of witchcraft and infanticide with slander suites. Although he did not win decisively, Susannah was acquitted in the criminal courts. In public gossip, however, her reputation as a witch appears to have continued irrespective of the court's findings. An essay on man poetry foundation essay on challenges of good governance in nepal my best friend essay in chinese essay on rules of cricket, essay in cow in sanskrit.

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